In the last lesson, you learned how to decline nouns in order to provide more information about the function of that noun, i.e. whether something is using the noun, moving to/from the noun or belongs to the noun. In this lesson you will learn how to decline demonstrative pronouns in the same way.

Remember that demonstrative pronouns replace nouns entirely and do not only modify them like demonstrative adjectives (“this is red” as opposed to “this apple is red”). Also remember that in Dhivehi, demonstrative pronouns are used in place of third person neuter pronouns. In case you’ve forgotten, here are the demonstrative pronouns:

dhivehi-demontrative-pronouns

Nominative and Accusative Cases

Just like normal nouns, demonstrative pronouns remain the same for these two cases.

Genitive Case

For the singular nouns, there are two ways to form the genitive. The first is to treat it as a normal noun, lengthening the ި  to ީ  and then adding ގެ:

  • މީތީގެ – of this/it
  • ތީތީގެ – of that/it
  • އޭތީގެ – of that/it

However, the more common way to do it is by using the demonstrative adjective form with ގެ:

  • މީގެ – of this/it
  • ތީގެ – of that/it
  • އޭގެ – of that/it

There’s no real difference between these two forms. The first one puts a little more emphasis on the object. These multiple declensions are present for each case for singular demonstratives, as you will soon see.

Plural nouns are declined like normal nouns (remember that the literal meaning is “these/those things”):

  • މިއެއްޗެހީގެ – of these/them
  • ތިއެއްޗެހީގެ – of those/them
  • އެއެއްޗެހީގެ – of those/them

When spoken, you will more likely hear ތީއްޗިހީގެ ,މީއްޗިހީގެ and އޭއްޗިހީގެ.

Dative Case

Singular demonstrative pronouns can be declined with or without ތި. That is, either this:

  • މިއެއްޗަށް – to this/it
  • ތިއެއްޗަށް – to that/it
  • އެއެއްޗަށް – to that/it

(Remember that ތި changes to އްޗ when adding suffixes starting with vowel sounds. Also these words are pronounced ތީއްޗަށް ,މީއްޗަށް and އޭއްޗަށް. Sometimes they are written that way too.)

or this:

  • މިއަށް – to this/it
  • ތިއަށް – to that/it
  • އެއަށް – to that/it

Plural demonstrative pronouns take އަށް after changing the final ހި to އްސ:

  • މިއެއްޗެއްސަށް – to these/them
  • ތިއެއްޗެއްސަށް – to those/them
  • އެއެއްޗެއްސަށް – to those/them

(Pronounced މީއްޗިއްސަށް etc.)

Locative Case

Like the other cases, there are two forms for singular pronouns:

  • މީތީގައި – in/at/on this/it
  • ތީތީގައި – in/at/on that/it
  • އޭތީގައި – in/at/on that/it

or

  • މީގައި – in/at/on this/it
  • ތީގައި – in/at/on that/it
  • އޭގައި – in/at/on that/it

Plural pronouns:

  • މިއެއްޗެހީގައި – in/on/at these/them
  • ތިއެއްޗެހީގައި – in/on/at those/them
  • އެއެއްޗެހީގައި – in/on/at those/them

Ablative Case

Singular pronouns:

  • މީތީން – from this/it
  • ތީތީން – from that/it
  • އޭތީން – from that/it

These forms are hardly ever used. More commonly you would see the following:

  • މިއިން – from this/it
  • ތިއިން – from that/it
  • އެއިން – from that/it

Plural pronouns:

  • މިއެއްޗެހިން – from these/them
  • ތިއެއްދެހިން – from those/them
  • އެއެއްޗެހިން – from those/them

Instrumental Case

Singular pronouns:

  • މީތީން – with this/it
  • ތީތީން – with that/it
  • އޭތީން – with that/it

As before, these are rarely used. The more common forms are slightly irregular:

  • މީގެން – with this/it
  • ތީގެން – with that/it
  • އޭގެން – with that/it

Plural pronouns:

  • މިއެއްޗެހިން – with these/them
  • ތިއެއްދެހިން – with those/them
  • އެއެއްޗެހިން – with those/them

The ablative and instrumental cases are more or less interchangeable (even the parts which aren’t the same). So the ގެން forms can be used instead of the އިން forms. You may also sometimes see singular forms used to refer to plural nouns.

Associative Case

Singular pronouns:

  • މީއްޗާ – with this/it
  • ތީއްޗާ – with that/it
  • އޭއްޗާ – with that/it

Or

  • މިއާ – with this/it
  • ތިއާ – with that/it
  • އެއާ – with that/it

Plural pronouns:

  • މިއެއްޗެއްސާ – with these/them
  • ތިއެއްޗެއްސާ – with those/them
  • އެއެއްޗެއްސާ – with those/them

Summary

The following table shows all the declined forms of demonstrative pronouns:

dhivehi-demonstrative-cases

 

 

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